The male Y chromosone contained in a DNA sample is passed down the male line virtually intact. Thus, if two male DNAs closely match then it can be scientifically proven that these people are related.
There are two main DNA testing organisations:
- Ancestry.com, and
Both organisations test the DNA from saliva samples. The results are however presented differently.
Ancestry.com DNA tests
These results are very user friendly and show:
- Ethnicity – showing regional origins and a DNA history
- DNA matches – showing DNA matches with potential cousins. Various searches are avilable to narrow down cousins, for example by searching by surnames.
- Family circles – showing others that in your family tree
My DNA home page looks like:
They however do not provide the detail that serious analytical buffs like.
FamilyTreeDNA.com DNA Tests
These tests are much more analytical. They produce tables of results of Short Tandem Repeats (STRs). The Hayde test results look like:
|Tree #||Paternal Ancestor Name||Haplo group||DYS393||DYS390||DYS19||DYS391||DYS385||DYS426||DYS388||DYS439||DYS389i||DYS392||DYS389ii||DYS458||DYS459||DYS455||DYS454||DYS447||DYS437||DYS448|
|15||Patrick Hade born 1775, Co Carlow, Ireland||I-M223||15||23||15||10||15-15||11||13||11||13||12||32||15||8-10||11||11||25||14||20|
|6||Patrick Hayde b 1824, Fethard, Tipperary||I-M223||15||23||15||10||15-15||11||13||11||13||12||31||15||8-10||11||11||25||14||20|
|3||Lawrence Heade, born Co Kildare/ Wicklow circa 1740||I-M223||15||23||15||10||15-15||11||13||11||13||12||31||15||8-10||11||11||25||14||20|
|18||James Hayde born abt 1800 Dublin, Ireland||I-M223||15||23||15||10||15-16||11||13||11||13||12||31||15||8-10||11||11||25||14||20|
|9||Edward Hayde born abt 1830, Ballinure, Co Tipperary||I-M223||15||23||15||10||15-15||11||13||11||13||12||31||15||8-10||11||11||25||14||20|
|1||Thomas Hayde, born circa 1784, Dually, Co Tipperary||I-M223||15||23||15||10||15-15||11||13||11||13||12||32||15||8-10||11||11||24||14||20|
|10||Thomas Hayde, born circa 1784, Dually, Co Tipperary||I-M223||15||23||15||10||15-15||11||13||11||13||12||32||15||8-10||11||11||25||14||20|
|10||Edmond Hayde, born 1812, Ballinure, Co Tipperary||1-M223||15||23||15||10||15-15||11||13||11||13||12||32||15||8-10||11||11||25||14||20|
|8||John Hayde, b c 1800, Fethard, Co Tipperary||R-L48||13||23||14||13||11-14||12||12||12||14||13||30||16||9-10||11||11||25||15||19|
|8||John Hayde, b c 1800, Fethard, Co Tipperay||RM269||13||24||15||11||11-14||12||12||12||14||13||30||18||10-10||11||11||25||16||19|
|16||Christopher Hade, b 1790, Dublin||RM269||13||24||15||11||11-14||12||12||11||13||13||29||19||9-10||11||11||24||15||19|
|4||Edmond Heade, born 1732, Co Kilkenny, Ireland||R-U106||13||23||14||13||11-14||12||12||12||14||13||30||17||9-10||11||11||25||15||19|
|6||Patrick Hayde, b 1824 Fethard, Tipperary||R-P312||13||24||14||11||11-14||12||12||12||14||13||31||19||9-10||11||11||24||14||19|
|= Faster mutating markers|
This is explained more at www.familytreeDNA.com.
I have set up a Hayde research project using these results as part of the study. Click here to be directed to this site.
This shows that:
- The DNAs reflect three broad sets of data,
- One set of data relates to the German connection mentioned above,
- The other two sets have Irish origins.
Both the two Irish DNA sets can all be traced back to County Tipperary. An area that I suspect is around Ballingarry. As the sets come from the same location, I assume a NPE (non paternal event) occurred at some stage that introduced the other DNAs.
One of the Irish sets is from Haplogroup (origin) R-M343. This is a very common Haplogroup in Central Europe, Spain, France, Portugal and the British Isles. Sub groups include R-L48, R-U106 and R-P312, the three groups featured in the Hayde/Hade results.
Similar to the Haplogroup R-M343 are the results from R-M269. This Haplogroup is the dominant lineage in all of Western Europe today.
These two sets of groups seem to have Norman origins and I have labelled this grouping as of ‘Norman Origin’ on the web site. This is very conceptual at present and the haplogroups are going through continuous further testing. What is interesting is that the Haydes in this group have very similar DNAs to families that have origins in Lancashire.
The other Irish set is from Haplogroup I-M223. This Haplogroup has Scandanavian origins. I have labelled this group as of ‘Viking Origin’ in this data. There is also a group studying this origin in more detail and as the research progresses these origins will become clearer.
Haplogroup I2a2a. Subglade I-M223 (as extracted from wikipedia)
I-M223 has a peak in Germany and another in eastern Sweden, but also appears in Romania/Moldova, Russia, Greece, Italy and around the Black Sea due to movement of Alans/Sarmatians/Scythians.
Haplogroup I2a2a has been found in over 4% of the population only in:
- Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, probably moving tribes of Dacians.
- England (excluding Cornwall), Scotland, possibly descendants of the Iazyges, Legio VI Victrix, 175 410 AD
- The southern tips of Sweden and Norway in Northwest Europe
- The provinces of Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Perche in northwestern France
- The province of Provence in southeastern France
- The regions of Tuscany, Umbria, and Latium in Italy
- Moldavia and the area around Russia’s Ryazan Oblast and Republic of Mordovia in Eastern Europe maybe Agathyrsi, Khazars
Of historical note, both haplogroups I-M253 and I-M223 appear at a low frequency in the historical regions of Bithynia and Galatia in Turkey, possibly descendants of the Thracians, Cataphract of Alexander the Great at 334 BC, and Varangians, who are historically recorded to have invaded those parts of Anatolia from the 9th to 11th centuries. They ventured southwards along the rivers of Eastern Europe, connecting Scandinavia with Constantinople and Byzantine Empire. Haplogroup I2a2a also occurs among approximately 1% of the Sardinians – Vandals]. The subclade divergence for M223 occurred 14.6±3.8 kya.
Haplogroup I-M223 can be further subdivided in several subclades designated in the Y2012 ISOGG tree as follows:
- Haplogroup I-M223 with no further known polymorphisms
- Haplogroup I-M284 defined by M284 polymorphism and including an undergroup
- Haplogroup I-L126 reserved for individuals derived for the L126/S165, L137/S166 polymorphisms
- Haplogroup I-L701 associated with L701 polymorphism, and
- Haplogroup I-Z161 denoting individuals derived for the Z161 polymorphism.
A possible DNA Tree of the I-M223 families is: